John Emerson once again on the meaning of Harald's byname, "Hardrada":
Brad DeLong's Semi-Daily Journal: All History Is Byzantine...: "Hardrada" translates as "hard counsel", probably the equivalent of "tough talk" or "harsh intentions" the like. Not Mr. Nice Guy.
Perhaps "harsh measures"? As in what John Yoo says the president has the power to order no matter what laws congress passes or treaties the senate ratifies?
Perhaps the hardest byname to translate well since Odysseus's.